近5年的ESSA,学生评估站在哪?

  • At the end of 2015, 奥巴马总统签署了《bet36365首页》(ESSA)成为法律, 建立并取代过时的《bet36365首页》. Both acts had, as a centerpiece, 有必要缩小贫困学生和少数族裔学生与其同龄人之间的“成绩差距”. ESSA took measures a step further than its predecessor, requiring that every student, regardless of background or beginning ability, 为在世界上取得成功做好准备.

    因为有批评说标准化考试已经从消极的方面改变了学习——学生被测试得太频繁了, that educators were “teaching to the test,以及行政人员和学区过于重视分数——ESSA允许各州和学区尝试新的评估方法, 只要新方案可靠地产生可测量的分数或熟练程度.

    教育部(DoE)设立了一个名为“创新评估示范机构”的试点项目,以支持多达7个州的教育机构在5年内努力建立新的评估系统. As of December 2019, 四个州批准了该计划:路易斯安那州, New Hampshire, Georgia, and North Carolina. The four programs, in brief:

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    • Louisiana’s 试点项目结合了英语和社会研究评估, 在一年内进行数个较小的评估, 并在当地控制学生学习和测试的书籍(在标准化测试中), 学生们经常会接受bet5365首页他们可能没有读过的书的节选的测试).
    • New Hampshire is using local assessments as part of their program, designed in part by local teachers, and integrated into students’ daily work.
    • Georgia is testing two new assessment protocols. One is “adaptive interim assessments,” which involves fewer assessments given at more appropriate times; the other is “on-demand assessments,” intended to show data in real time.
    • North Carolina 计划使用被称为“路线”的年终评估,根据每个学生在学年的前两次评估中的表现为每个学生量身定制. “路线”是一组旨在衡量每个学生成绩的问题.

    Results from the four states are years from completion; Louisiana and New Hampshire were approved in 2018, Georgia and North Carolina in 2019. 另外三个州,夏威夷、堪萨斯和南卡罗来纳也表达了兴趣. But despite its slow adaptation, the program speaks to teachers’, parents’, 在过去,管理人员对标准化考试(包括数量和质量)是决定学生和学校成败的唯一因素的担忧.

    New Hampshire’s program was an inspiration for ESSA; the state received a DoE waiver in 2015 to replace some standardized tests with alternative forms of assessments.

    “我们只是在课堂上创造对孩子有意义的奇妙评估,” said Ellen Hume-Howard, 他是新罕布什尔学习计划(New Hampshire Learning Initiative)的执行董事,也是桑伯恩地区学区(Sanborn Regional School District)的前课程主管, 该豁免覆盖的四个原PACE地区之一, to the website EducationDive.  “我们在那里证明了这一点,收集了数据,给了这种方法一些可信度.该学区只在小学进行一次标准化考试, once in middle school and once in high school. Otherwise, they use assessment alternatives, which depend on “performance tasks” – essays, science experiments, 数学项目-确定孩子达到了什么水平.

    The ESSA changes have not been without growing pains; in April 2019, 《bet36365首页》做了一篇bet5365首页该项目第一年进展的特别报道, noting the seeming lack of interest from many states. 在路易斯安那州项目的特写镜头中,一些专家指出了担忧.

    Cynthia Posey, 路易斯安那州教师联合会的立法主任, said her union is waiting to see results. 她告诉《bet36365首页》:“bet5365首页这个问题,还有很多未解之谜。.

    Sandy Kress, who worked on No Child Left Behind, 列举了以往阻碍创新评估尝试的典型问题.

    首先,我们能否看到他们提出的测试的内部结构?,” Kress asked. “第二,我们能否确定它是否与国家的标准一致?” he said. 第三个方面可能是最复杂的:它能被国家用来衡量不同的熟练程度吗?”

    There are many aspects to assessment in the classroom, 而教师们在相关问题上往往没有得到足够的培训. “Engagement, Implementation, and Assessment这是bet5365首页在线开设的一门课程 professional development program, the subject focuses on an inquiry-based classroom, 促进学生参与,并将评估作为学习工具. The engagement section directs your evaluation of the current level of engagement in your classroom; the implementation aspect will focus on introducing inquiry in your classroom by adapting a unit you currently teach. 评估方面让你在评估进步的同时创造出提高学习的评估. The course is self-paced and online, 代表了持续专业发展的两个学分.

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